Explaining the Models of the Development of Expertise in Teacher Education: the journey from acclimation to proficiency

Document Type : Research Paper


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Professionalism is a valuable goal in the training process. Extensive research on the nature and growth of specialization in the last few decades has led to emerge various perceptions, theories and models about this concept that can pave the way for educators to develop the professional expertise of learners. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical-comparative overview of those theories and models in order to provide a precise definition of their profession and how it is developed and to derive implications for teacher training. According to the findings of articles and books related to this area, Some of the most famous and reputable ones are the five-step version of the Dreyfus Skill Acquisition Model (1869) to the Professional Development according to which individuals They go through five steps: beginner, advanced, expert, profession, and special; Erikson''s (1991) “two-stage allocation” model means reaching from the misunderstanding stage to the understanding and understanding stage through conscious practice; The Experimental Learning Model by David Kolb (1984) or reflection-in-action (1987) by Schon both point to the central role of reflection and metacognitive activities in learning; Brown et al.''s (1989) model with emphasis on genuine situational activity and apprenticeships; the theory of Leinhardt et al. (1995) that consider the theorizing in practice and explaining the theory as keys to the development of dedicated knowledge; Bereiter and Scardamalia (1993) theory that considers problem-solving as a means of integrating specific knowledge, ie the conversion of theoretical knowledge into personal knowledge and skill and finally MDL model that knows quantitative and qualitative changes in the three components of knowledge, strategic processing, and motivation necessary for acquisition in going through three stages of skilfulness, capability, and professionality. Each of these theories and models is based on different and sometimes conflicting assumptions about professionalism. Based on the common features of models and with an emphasis on the domain-based learning model (MDL), as a distinct and comprehensive approach to professionalism, educational suggestions are offered in three areas: development of specialized knowledge, improvement of professional skills and increasing personal motivation in the context of teacher training.


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