عنوان مقاله [English]
Teacher professional development is necessary because it will provide teachers with high-quality skills and knowledge and will promote the quality of student learning. There are different definitions of professional development based on different stakeholders’ viewpoints from policy makers to teachers. Professional development is not limited to formal programs. Other courses such as self-directed learning and problem-solving skills are also important. In other words, professional learning is based on context and lived experience and educational reform is achieved when teachers believe in lifelong learning in their classrooms. In this way, they can reach professional insight in the classroom. Teachers have to tie their personal self-studies to theoretical approaches to practice the most effective techniques in their own classrooms. This article investigates teacher professional development models based on three axes: 1. Standard-based models; 2. School-based models and 3. Self-directed models. Then, lesson study or cooperative teaching as well as learning activities are discussed in detail. Finally, a useful example of learning activity with regard to problem-solving technique is illustrated.